|03-01-2012, 05:16 PM||#1|
Join Date: Nov 2003
Posted on MD by heayiron
Pramipexole lowers prolactin and raises HGH in a dose dependant relationship so the more you take the more it works.
Neuroendocrine and side effect profile of pramipexole, a new dopamine receptor agonist, in humans.
Schilling JC, Adamus WS, Palluk R.
Human Pharmacology Centre, Boehringer Ingelheim KG, Germany.
The effects and tolerability of pramipexole, a new dopamine D2-receptor agonist, on prolactin, human growth hormone, thyrotropin, cortisol, and corticotropin levels were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in 12 healthy volunteers. Single oral doses of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg pramipexole and placebo were studied over a period of 24 hours. Pramipexole decreased serum prolactin levels in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum effect after 2 to 4 hours. Serum levels of human growth hormone were dose-dependently increased; however, this effect was only significant 2 hours after drug administration. Furthermore, a slight increase in serum cortisol levels and a slight decrease in serum thyrotropin levels was observed. Our findings show for the first time pharmacodynamic effects of pramipexole after single oral doses in healthy volunteers. The compound was well tolerated and showed an endocrine profile similar to other dopamine D2-agonists.
PMID: 1350237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prami may encourage freaky behavior in the bedroom and the casino.
Increased frequency and range of sexual behavior in a patient with Parkinson's disease after use of pramipexole: a case report.
Munhoz RP, Fabiani G, Becker N, Teive HA.
Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
INTRODUCTION: Several recent reports have linked the use of dopamine agonists (DAs) to a variety of compulsive behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These inappropriate behaviors may include pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, and hypersexuality. AIM: To report the case of a patient with increased range of sexual behavior after use of pramipexole, a DA. METHODS: A 67-year-old man with a 7-year diagnosis of PD treated with levodopa and pramipexole presented with a dramatic change in sexual behavior after an increase in DA dose. RESULTS: The patient, who historically was a very shy and conservative person, started to present increased frequency of sexual intercourse with his wife, during which he began speaking obscenities with an extreme preference for anal intercourse, preferences never requested before. After pramipexole was withdrawn, complete remission was observed with return to his usual sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Hypersexuality and paraphilias are complications not uncommonly found in patients with PD under dopaminergic treatment. Further studies are needed for the understanding of this complex complication, and particularly the most prevalent relationship between pathological hypersexuality and use of DAs.
PMID: 18466265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Gambling and increased sexual desire with dopaminergic medications in restless legs syndrome.
Driver-Dunckley ED, Noble BN, Hentz JG, Evidente VG, Caviness JN, Parish J, Krahn L, Adler CH.
Department of Neurology, Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Mayo Clinic, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES: Do patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) report gambling or other abnormal behaviors as previously reported in Parkinson disease. METHODS: This survey study was sent to 261 idiopathic RLS patients, and it included the Gambling Symptoms Assessment Scale, Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, and questions pertaining to sexual activity and novelty-seeking behaviors. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients responded to the survey, and 77 were actively taking 1 or more dopaminergic medications. Of the 70 respondents who answered the gambling questions, 5 (7%) noted a change in gambling, with 4 (6%; 95% confidence interval, 2%-14%) stating that increased urges and time spent gambling occurred specifically after the use of dopaminergic medications (2 on pramipexole, 1 on ropinirole, and 1 on levodopa and pramipexole). Increased sexual desire was reported by 4 (5%) of the 77 respondents, 3 (4%; 95% confidence interval, 1%-11%) reported that this occurred specifically after the use of dopaminergic medications (1 on pramipexole, 1 on ropinirole, and 1 on levodopa). One patient reported both an increase in gambling and sexual habits. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory survey study revealed the development of gambling and/or increased sexuality in patients with RLS. These data raise the possibility that, as in Parkinson disease, RLS patients should be cautioned about potential behaviors that may occur with the use of dopaminergic medications. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the relationship between these medications and compulsive behaviors associated with the treatment of RLS.
PMID: 17909302 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prami reduces depression and allows more feelings of pleasure.
Effects of the dopamine agonist pramipexole on depression, anhedonia and motor functioning in Parkinson's disease.
Lemke MR, Brecht HM, Koester J, Reichmann H.
Center of Psychiatry and Neurology, Rhine Clinic Bonn, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Depression affects approximately 45% of all patients with Parkinson's disease, reduces quality of live independent of motor symptoms and seems to be underrated and undertreated. Pramipexole shows D(3)- versus D(2)-receptor preference at cortico-frontal dopamine receptors and neurotrophic effects which seem to relate to its antidepressant and anti-anhedonic properties in Parkinson's disease and bipolar depression found in controlled studies. In the present study, effects of pramipexole were investigated under routine clinical conditions. Anhedonia was measured in patients with Parkinson's disease (n=657) using the self-rated Snaith-Hamilton-Pleasure-Scale (SHAPS-D), depression was assessed by the observer-rated Short-Parkinson's-Evaluation Scale (SPES). Anhedonia was present in 45.7% of all patients and in 79.7% of the depressed patients with Parkinson's disease. Mild depression was present in 47%, moderate to severe depression in 22% of the patients. At the end of the study period of 9 weeks on an average, the mean dosage of pramipexole was 1.0+/-0.6 mg/d (range 0.3 to 4.2). Frequency of depression (moderate to severe: 6.8%, mild: 37.6%) and anhedonia (25.5%) as well as motor deficits were significantly reduced during treatment with pramipexole. Drop-outs due to adverse events occurred in 3.5%. Future studies should investigate specificity of anti-anhedonic and antidepressive properties of pramipexole.
PMID: 16814808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pramipexole in treatment-resistant depression: a 16-week naturalistic study.
Lattanzi L, Dell'Osso L, Cassano P, Pini S, Rucci P, Houck PR, Gemignani A, Battistini G, Bassi A, Abelli M, Cassano GB.
Department of Psychiatry, Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Biotechnologies, University of Pisa, Italy. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To assess the antidepressant efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive pramipexole, a D2-D3 dopamine agonist, in patients with drug-resistant depression. METHODS: The study sample consisted of in-patients with major depressive episode, according to the DSM-IV, and drug resistance. Pramipexole was added to antidepressant treatment with TCA or SSRI, at increasing doses from 0.375 to 1.0 mg/day. Two independent response criteria were adopted: a > 50% reduction of the Montgomery-Asberg Depressive Rating Scale (MADRS) total score and a score of I or 2 on the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI-1) at endpoint. Side-effects were assessed by the Dosage Record Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (DOTES). RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. Of these. 16 had unipolar depression and 21 had bipolar depression. Six patients dropped out in the first week. Of the 31 patients included in the analyses. 19 completed the 16-week follow-up. Mean maximal dose of pramipexole was 0.95 mg/day. Mean scores on MADRS decreased from 33.3 +/- 8.4 at baseline to 13.9 +/- 11.5 at endpoint (p < 0.001) and the CGI-S decreased from 4.6 +/- 0.8 at baseline to 2.8 +/- 1.3 at endpoint (p < 0.001). At endpoint, 67.7% (21/31) of patients were responders on MADRS and 74.2% on CGI-I. Of the 37 patients enrolled, 10 discontinued pramipexole because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data suggest that pramipexole adjunction to antidepressant treatment may be effective and well tolerated in patients with resistant major depression.
PMID: 12479663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Comparison of pramipexole and modafinil on arousal, autonomic, and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers.
Samuels ER, Hou RH, Langley RW, Szabadi E, Bradshaw CM.
Psychopharmacology Section, Division of Psychiatry, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
The noradrenergic locus coeruleus is a major wakefulness-promoting nucleus of the brain, which is also involved in the regulation of autonomic and endocrine functions. The activity of the locus coeruleus is believed to be tonically enhanced by a mesocoerulear dopaminergic pathway arising from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. Both modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting drug, and pramipexole, a D(2)/D(3)receptor agonist with sedative properties, may act on this pathway, with modafinil increasing and pramipexole decreasing locus coeruleus activity. The aim of this study was to compare the two drugs on alertness, autonomic and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers. Pramipexole (0.5mg), modafinil (200mg), and their combination were administered to 16 healthy males in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Methods included tests of alertness (pupillographic sleepiness test, critical flicker fusion frequency, visual analogue scales), autonomic functions (resting pupil diameter, light and darkness reflex responses, heart rate, blood pressure, salivation, core temperature), and endocrine functions (blood concentrations of prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid stimulating hormone). Data were analysed by ANOVA. Pramipexole reduced alertness, caused pupil dilatation, increased heart rate, reduced prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone, and increased growth hormone level. Modafinil caused small increases in blood pressure and core temperature, and reduced prolactin levels. The sedative effect of pramipexole and the autonomic effects of modafinil are consistent with altered activity in the mesocoerulear pathway; the pupil dilatation following pramipexole suggests reduced dopaminergic excitation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.
PMID: 16401653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pramipexole in the management of restless legs syndrome: an extended study.
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Silber MH, Girish M, Izurieta R.
Sleep Disorders Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pramipexole used over an extended time for restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains effective; whether the dose of the drug needs to be increased; whether augmentation develops; and whether side effects, especially sleepiness, are prominent. DESIGN: Retrospective review of the records of consecutive patients treated with pramipexole for RLS. SETTING: Sleep disorders center in an academic hospital. PATIENTS: 60 consecutive patients treated with pramipexole for RLS. INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Pramipexole was completely effective in controlling RLS in 67%, partially effective in 27%, and ineffective in 7% of patients. Eleven patients (18%) discontinued pramipexole after less than 4 months; the remainder were followed for a mean of 27.2 months, during which only 4 others stopped the drug. The median daily dose increased from 0.38 mg after stabilization to 0.63 mg at the end of the study. Forty percent experienced mild side effects, most commonly insomnia, nausea or dyspepsia, and dizziness. Only 5% experienced sleepiness, and none experienced sleep attacks while driving. Augmentation developed in 33%, most in the first year and all by 30 months. Augmentation was not predictable by prior augmentation with other dopaminergic agents. Only 1 patient discontinued pramipexole because of augmentation. CONCLUSIONS: Pramipexole was effective for RLS with continued response with time. Modest escalations in dose occurred, partly due to additional doses prescribed for augmentation. Side effects were common, but generally mild and tolerated. Sleepiness while driving was not a problem. Augmentation occurred in 33% of patients but was treatable with increased doses earlier in the day.
PMID: 14655914 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Am J Psychiatry 161:564-566, March 2004
© 2004 American Psychiatric Association
Preliminary Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pramipexole Added to Mood Stabilizers for Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Depression
Joseph F. Goldberg, M.D., Katherine E. Burdick, Ph.D., and Carrie J. Endick, C.S.W.
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest that the dopamine agonist pramipexole may possess antidepressant properties. The authors conducted a preliminary randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the safety and antidepressant efficacy of pramipexole in treatment-resistant bipolar depression. METHOD: Twenty-two depressed outpatients with DSM-IV nonpsychotic bipolar disorder were randomly assigned to receive placebo or flexibly dosed pramipexole (mean maximum dose=1.7 mg/day, SD=1.3) added to existing mood stabilizers for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was response, defined as improvement in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 50% or more over the baseline score; secondary analyses involved changes in Clinical Global Impression (CGI) severity scores. RESULTS: More patients given pramipexole (10 [83%] of 12) than patients given placebo (six [60%] of 10) completed the study. Eight (67%) of 12 patients taking pramipexole and two (20%) of 10 taking placebo had an improvement of at least 50% in their Hamilton depression scale scores. The mean percentage of improvement from baseline Hamilton depression scale scores was greater for patients taking pramipexole (48%) than for those taking placebo (21%). Mean improvements in CGI severity were also greater with pramipexole than placebo. No patients discontinued the study because of adverse events except for one patient who became hypomanic while taking pramipexole. CONCLUSIONS: Pramipexole was a safe and effective antidepressant among patients with bipolar depression. Larger randomized, controlled trials are needed to affirm these initial observations.
Pre-clinical studies of pramipexole: clinical relevance.
Department of Neurology, The Ohio State University Parkinson's Disease Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
This paper reviews the preclinical study of the novel dopamine agonist pramipexole and its use in early Parkinson's disease (PD). Emphasis will be given to those properties distinguishing this drug from other dopamine agonists, the relevance of the preclinical data to clinical trial results in early PD, and the putative neuroprotective properties of the compound. The conventional dopamine agonists are ergot-derived compounds that are most widely used as adjunctive therapies in advancing Parkinson's disease (PD). Examples of conventional agonists are bromocriptine and pergolide. Pramipexole is an aminobenzothiazole compound, recently introduced for the treatment of both early and advanced PD. Its nonergot structure may reduce the risk of side-effects, considered unique to ergot drugs, such as membranous fibrosis. Pramipexole is a full dopamine agonist with high selectivity for the D2 dopamine receptor family. This family includes the D2, D3 and D4 receptor subtypes. Pramipexole has a 5- to 7-fold greater affinity for the D3 receptor subtype with lower affinities for the D2 and D4 receptor subtypes. The drug has only minimal alpha2-adrenoceptor activity and virtually no other receptor agonism or antagonism. The optimal dopamine receptor activation for the safe and effective treatment of PD is not known. Findings in animal models and clinical studies indicate that activation of the postsynaptic D2 receptor subtype provides the most robust symptomatic improvement in PD. Given its pharmacological profile, it is not surprising that pramipexole was found to be effective in ameliorating parkinsonian signs in animal models. This therapeutic effect has been confirmed in clinical trials in both early and advanced PD. In early disease, it provides a clear reduction in the chief motor manifestations of PD and improved activities of daily living. Perhaps most striking is the large number of clinical trial patients who have remained on pramipexole monotherapy for many months. The majority of these subjects have been maintained on pramipexole for an excess of 24 months without requiring additional symptomatic treatment with levodopa. This is in contrast to the general clinical experience with older conventional agonists. Pramipexole also has a favourable pharmacokinetic profile. It is rapidly absorbed with peak levels appearing in the bloodstream within 2 h of oral dosing. It has a high absolute bioavailability of > 90% and can be administered without regard to meals. It has no significant effects on other antiparkinson drugs such as levodopa or selegiline. Its excretion is primarily renal and, thus, has little or no impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes or other related metabolic pathways. Pramipexole has also been theorized to have 'neuroprotectant' properties. Oxyradical generation is posited as a cause or accelerant of brain nigral cell death in PD. Pramipexole stimulates brain dopamine autoreceptors and reduces dopamine synthesis and turnover which may minimize oxidative stress due to dopamine metabolism. Furthermore, the compound has a low oxidation potential that may serve as an oxyradical scavenger in the PD brain. In summary, pramipexole is a new antiparkinson medication found to have unique dopamine agonist characteristics and putative neuroprotective properties.
PMID: 11054154 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Pramipexole does NOT cause fibotic reactions but bromocriptine, cabergoline and pergolide do.
Cardiac and noncardiac fibrotic reactions caused by ergot-and nonergot-derived dopamine agonists.
Andersohn F, Garbe E.
Bremen Institute for Prevention Research and Social Medicine, University of Bremen, Germany. email@example.com
There is growing evidence that the ergot-derived dopamine agonists cabergoline and pergolide can cause fibrotic cardiac valvulopathy. Data on other fibrotic reactions and nonergot-derived dopamine agonists are sparse. Aim of this study was to investigate whether there are signals that dopamine agonists are related to cardiac and other fibrotic reactions. We identified all reports of fibrotic reactions at the heart, lung, and retroperitoneal space associated with dopamine agonists within the US Adverse Event Reporting System database. Disproportionality analyses were used to calculate adjusted reporting odds ratios (RORs). For ergot-derived dopamine agonists (bromocriptine, cabergoline, pergolide), the RORs of all reactions under study were increased, whereas no such increases were observed for nonergot-derived drugs (apomorphine, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine). Fibrotic reactions due to ergot-derived dopamine agonists may not be limited to heart valves. For nonergot-derived dopamine agonists, no drug safety signals were evident.
PMID: 19170199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cardiac valve regurgitation with pergolide compared with nonergot agonists in Parkinson disease.
Dewey RB 2nd, Reimold SC, O'Suilleabhain PE.
Department of Neurology and Division of Cardiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390-9036, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Although most studies have suggested an increased risk of valvulopathy (primarily regurgitation) with pergolide mesylate use, one study suggested that this problem may also occur with use of the non-ergot-derived dopamine agonists pramipexole dihydrochloride and ropinirole hydrochloride. OBJECTIVE: To determine if cardiac valve regurgitation occurs more commonly in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) treated with pergolide than in those treated with nonergot agonists at a comparable dose. DESIGN: A case-control study of echocardiographic findings of valve function in patients receiving dopamine agonists for PD. SETTING: University-based referral center. Patients Thirty-six patients with idiopathic PD taking pergolide were compared with a matched control group of patients taking nonergot agonists with regard to the frequency and severity of cardiac valve regurgitation. Main Outcome Measure Valve scores (1 indicates trace; 2, mild; 3, moderate; and 4, severe) for the pergolide group were compared with those for the nonergot agonist control group. RESULTS: The mean +/- SD valve regurgitation scores in the matched pergolide group compared with the nonergot group were as follows: aortic, 0.83 +/- 1.23 vs 0.19 +/- 0.53 (P = .01); mitral, 1.42 +/- 1.0 vs 0.39 +/- 0.65 (P<.001); and tricuspid, 1.43 +/- 1.0 vs 0.19 +/- 0.53 (P<.001). Lifetime exposure to a dopamine agonist was not statistically different between the pergolide and nonergot agonist groups (P = .18). CONCLUSIONS: These data strengthen the conclusion that pergolide contributes to cardiac valve regurgitation when used in the long term as a treatment for PD. There appears to be low risk of cardiac valve regurgitation when using non-ergot-derived dopamine agonists.
PMID: 17353380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;64(5):591-602. Epub 2007 Jun 19.
Comparison of pramipexole with and without domperidone co-administration on alertness, autonomic, and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers.
Samuels ER, Hou RH, Langley RW, Szabadi E, Bradshaw CM.
Psychopharmacology Section, University of Nottingham, Division of Psychiatry, Nottingham, UK.
To investigate the effects of the D2-receptor agonist pramipexole with and without the co-administration of the peripherally acting D2-receptor antagonist domperidone on measures of alertness, autonomic and endocrine function.
Sixteen male volunteers participated in four weekly sessions of pramipexole 0.5 mg, domperidone 40 mg, their combination, and placebo administered according to a balanced, double-blind design. Alertness (visual analogue scales (VAS), critical flicker fusion frequency, pupillographic sleepiness test), autonomic (pupil diameter, light and darkness reflexes, blood pressure, heart rate, salivation, temperature) and endocrine (prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH)) functions were assessed. Data were analyzed with anova with multiple comparisons.
The pre-post treatment changes in VAS alertness were reduced by pramipexole with and without domperidone (mean difference from placebo (95% confidence interval), mm): pramipexole -15.75 (-23.38, -8.13), combination -11.84 (-20.77, -2.91). Treatment condition significantly affected pupil diameter measured in different ways (resting pupil diameter (F(3,45) = 8.39, P < 0.001), initial diameter of the light reflex response (F(3,42) = 3.78, P < 0.05), and light (F(3,45) = 5.21, P < 0.005) and dark (F(3,45) = 3.36, P < 0.05) diameters of the darkness reflex response). Pramipexole without domperidone consistently increased pupil diameter on all measures (P < 0.05), whereas with domperidone only the increase in resting and dark diameters reached significance. Pramipexole reduced light reflex amplitude and increased latency, whereas the combination affected latency only. Concentrations of prolactin and TSH were increased by domperidone. Pramipexole reduced prolactin and increased GH concentrations.
The attenuation of the central pupillary effects of pramipexole by domperidone indicates that domperidone had access to some central D2-receptors.
PMID: 17578485 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2203276
|03-02-2012, 09:43 AM||#4|
Another reason to consider Pramipexole treatment
Endocrinology. 2007 Jul;148(7):3089-101. Epub 2007 Apr 5. Links
Autocrine prolactin promotes prostate cancer cell growth via Janus kinase-2-signal transducer and activator of transcription-5a/b signaling pathway.Dagvadorj A, Collins S, Jomain JB, Abdulghani J, Karras J, Zellweger T, Li H, Nurmi M, Alanen K, Mirtti T, Visakorpi T, Bubendorf L, Goffin V, Nevalainen MT.
Department of Cancer Biology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, BLSB 309B, 233 South 10th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA, and Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Turku, Finland.
The molecular mechanisms that promote progression of localized prostate cancer to hormone-refractory and disseminated disease are poorly understood. Prolactin (Prl) is a local growth factor produced in high-grade prostate cancer, and exogenously added Prl in tissue or explant cultures of normal and malignant prostate is a strong mitogen and survival factor for prostate epithelium. The key signaling proteins that mediate the biological effects of Prl in prostate cancer are Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (Stat)-5a/5b via activation of Janus kinase-2. Importantly, inhibition of Stat5a/b in prostate cancer cells induces apoptotic death. Using a specific Prl receptor antagonist (Delta1-9G129R-hPRL), we demonstrate here for the first time that autocrine Prl in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells promotes cell viability via Stat5 signaling pathway. Furthermore, we examined a unique clinical material of human hormone refractory prostate cancers and metastases and show that autocrine Prl is expressed in 54% of hormone-refractory clinical human prostate cancers and 62% prostate cancer metastases. Finally, we demonstrate that autocrine Prl is expressed from both the proximal and distal promoters of the Prl gene in clinical human prostate cancers and in vivo and in vitro human prostate cancer models, independently of pituitary transcription factor-1 (Pit-1). Collectively, the data provide novel evidence for the concept that autocrine Prl signaling pathway is involved in growth of hormone-refractory and metastatic prostate cancer. The study also provides support for the use of Prl receptor antagonists or other therapeutic strategies to block the Prl-Janus kinase-2-Stat5 signaling pathway in advanced prostate cancer.
J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Mar;22(2 Suppl):20-7. Links
Adverse effects of prolactin in rodents and humans: breast and prostate cancer.Harvey PW, Everett DJ, Springall CJ.
Department of Toxicology, Covance Laboratories Ltd., Otley Road, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, UK. email@example.com
Drugs and chemicals shown to induce mammary carcinogenesis in the rat/rodent via prolactin excess have traditionally been argued to pose little or no risk to humans in a regulatory toxicology context. The basis for this assumption is reviewed and placed into context with new evidence in humans that prolactin may be a tumour promoter in the breast and prostate. This evidence includes epidemiology, patient studies involving endocrine evaluation and molecular biology in human cells. It is concluded that hyperprolactinaemia is associated with an increase in breast cancer risk in both post and premenopausal women, that rat carcinogenicity studies are predictive of the human response, and that in a regulatory toxicology context prolactin-induced mammary tumours from nongenotoxic drugs and chemicals are an adverse effect that should not be ignored. More evidence is required concerning prostate cancer risk but molecular biology indicates that prolactin also induces prostate cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, which are similar to the responses observed in breast cancer cells.
1: Biol Reprod. 1999 Dec;61(6):1636-43. Links
Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.
Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
To test the hypothesis that a transient increase in prolactin (PRL) secretion prior to puberty can result in an alteration of the adult prostate, male rats were exposed from postnatal Days (PND) 22 to 32 to compounds that increase PRL secretion. These compounds included pimozide (a dopamine antagonist), estradiol-17beta, and bisphenol A (a monomer of polycarbonate plastics reported to have weak estrogenic activity). During dosing, pimozide (PIM), bisphenol A (BPA), and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) stimulated an increased secretion of PRL. At 120 days of age, the lateral prostate weight was increased in the PIM and BPA groups as compared to the vehicle-injected controls. Examination of the prostates revealed inflammation in the lateral lobes of all treated groups. Results of a myeloperoxidase assay, a quantitative assay to assess acute inflammation, indicated an increase in the percentage of males with neutrophil infiltrate in the lateral prostates of the PIM and E(2) treatment groups compared to their respective controls. The histological evaluations of these tissues confirmed an increase in luminal polymorphonuclear cells and interstitial mononuclear cells of the lateral prostates in all treatment groups. Administration of the dopamine agonist, bromocriptine, to the estradiol-implanted males from PND 22 to 32 reversed the induction of lateral prostate inflammation by estradiol, suggesting that PRL was necessary for the inflammatory effect. This study demonstrates that prepubertal exposures to compounds that increase PRL secretion, albeit through different mechanisms, can increase the incidence of lateral prostate inflammation in the adult.
|01-23-2019, 05:44 AM||#7|
Join Date: Jan 2016
|01-23-2019, 09:33 PM||#8|
Join Date: Mar 2018
Prami is definitely a cheaper and more available alternative to Cabergoline, Cabaser, Dostinex, etc.
It works well for reducing prolactin and only requires very small doses.
Its typically available at most research chem sites for a reasonable price.
I recommend taking 250mcgs about an hour before having sex and it will increase your sensitivity which is especially useful if you're using a nor-19 androgen such as Deca and are prone to suffering hyperprolactinemia (deca dick).
If i dont use a prolactin inhibitor like prami or Caber with nandrolone then i suffer ED and difficulty ejaculating and in real bad cases my nipples will be very sensitive and lactate. Not much fun to squeeze milk out of your own nipples for sure.
Given a choice, i would pick cabergoline over pramipexole every time simply because fewer sides from caber. But prami is generally cheaper and easier to find and works just as well at lowering prolactin.
|02-05-2019, 04:57 PM||#9|
Join Date: Dec 2018
Excellent read. Thank you for posting. I have deca on hand for a later cycle and I'm doing my due diligence to read up on Prami and caber. I will have both on hand when I pull the trigger.